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Fish Forming

Fish Forming

Fish Forming

Fish Breeding

Technology :At present in India, hundreds of exotic and indigenous ornamental fish varieties are being bred under captive condition. Majority of the production goes to domestic market and to some extent for export. A  generalised production cycle of ornamental fishes is given below. There are quite a large number of tropical aquarium fishes known to the aquarists. While many of the fishes are easy to breed, some of these are rare, difficult to breed and expensive. Most of the exotic species can be bred and reared easily since the technology is simple and well developed. It is advisable to start with common, attractive, easily bred and less expensive species before attempting the more challenging ones.

Culture/rearing :The culture/rearing of these fishes can be taken up normally in cement tanks. Cement tanks are easy to maintain and durable. One species can be stocked in one tank. However, in case of compatible species two or three species can occupy the same tank. Ground water from dug wells / deep tube wells/ borewells  are the best for rearing fish. The fishes reach  marketable size in around 4 to 6 months. Eight to ten crops can be taken in a year.

Feeding : Young fish are fed mainly with Infusoria, Artemia, Daphnia , Mosquito larvae Tubifex and Blood worms. For rearing, formulated artificial or prepared feed can be used. At present no indigenous prepared feed for aquarium fish is available. The amount and type of food to be given depends on the size of the fry. Feeding is generally done twice in a day or according to the  requirement. For rearing from fry stage dry/ prepared feed can be used.

Breeding : Ninety five per cent of our ornamental fish export is based on wild collection. Such capture based export is not sustainable and it is a matter of concern for the industry. In order to sustain the growth it is absolutely necessary to shift the focus from capture to culture based development. Moreover, most of the fish species grown for their ornamental importance can be bred in India successfully. Organised trade in ornamental fish depends on assured and adequate supply, which is possible only through mass breeding.
The method of breeding is based on the family characteristics of the fish. The success of breeding depend on the compatibility of pairs, the identification of breeders which is a skill gained through experience. Generally the brooders are selected from the standing crop or purchased and reared separately by feeding them with good live food. However, it is always better to buy good brood stock and replace the breeders. Otherwise, the original characteristic of the species keeps on getting diluted because of continuous inbreeding. Brooders especially egg layers should be discarded after few spawnings.

Health care : Water exchange, is a must for maintaining water quality conducive for the fish health. Only healthy fish can withstand the effects of transportation and fetch a good price. Permitted chemicals / antibiotics, vitamins, etc can also be used for preventing / treating diseases.

Market: At present the market is mainly domestic and the demand is increasing steadily. The export market for indigenously bred exotic species is also fast growing and encouraging.

Economics of Ornamental Fish Rearing

Model-I

1 Capital Investment  
  (i)        Excavation of 1000 sqm. Nursery area 30000.00
  (ii)       Shallow Tubewell with 5 H.P. Engine 60000.00
  (iii)     Inverter 1100 KVA  15000.00
  (iv)      Aerator Heavy Duty            7000.00
  (v)       Aeration pipe fitting 5000.00
                                                              Total 117000.00
2 Operational Cost (Single Crop of 3 months)  
  (i)        Cost of 40000 early fry of Ornamental @ Rs. 0.60 per piece 24000.00
  (ii)       Feed for 3 months 2000.00
  (iii)     Electricity and water charges 6000.00
  (iv)      Medicine and probiotic 1000.00
                                                              Total 33000.00
                                                  Total Expenditure 150000.00
B Income  
  (i)        Sale of 20000 Nos. Ornamental Advance fingerlings @ Rs. 4/- per piece in a single crop of 3 months 80000.00
  (ii)       Total sale of 3 crops per year 240000.00
C Net Income(B(-)1+II) 90000.00

 

Economics of Ornamental Fish Rearing

Model-II

1

Capital Investment

 
 

(i)        Construction of 12 Nos. of RBC Cisterns each of 2x1x1mtr.

60000.00

 

(ii)       Aeration pipe and fittings

10000.00

 

(iii)     Aerator

7000.00

 

(iv)      Invertor

15000.00

 

(v)       1000 liter Over Head Tank

5000.00

 

(vi)      1st bore well with single phase electric motor

20000.00

 

                                                            Total

117000.00

2

Operational Cost (Single Crop of 3 months)

 
 

(i)        Cost of 40000 early fry @ Rs. 0.60 per piece

24000.00

 

(ii)       Fish feed of 3 months

2000.00

 

(iii)     Electricity and water charges

6000.00

 

(iv)      Medicine and probiotic

1000.00

 

                                                            Total

33000.00

 

                                                Total Expenditure

150000.00

B

Income

 
 

(i)        Sale of 20000 Nos. Ornamental Advance fingerlings @ Rs. 4/- per piece in a single crop of 3 months

80000.00

 

(ii)       Total sale of 3 crops per year

240000.00

C

Net Income(B(-)1+II)

90000.00

Pond Fish Farming

Fish Farming is an age old activity and in practice from ancient times. The concept of composite fish culture was developed by ICAR in late seventies under a coordinated composite fish culture project. This comprises the culture of 3 indigenous species of fish viz. rohu, catla and mrigal and 3 exotic fish i.e silver carp, grass carp and common carp, keeping in view their different food habit and habitat. This practice has been very well accepted by the farmers of Haryana as its cultural practices are analogous to agriculture. The successful fish culture requires ploughing of pond, addition of manure, stocking of fish seed; eradication of unwanted aquatic plants and animals, watering the pond; harvesting the crop and marketing of the produce. The fish culture technologies and economics are simple and understandable to the fish farmers. To produce one kilogram fish, the requirements are:-


- one cubic meter water

- one kilogram manure and 100 gm inorganic fertilizer
- one kilogram supplementary feed
and one year time

Cost of production of fish is Rs. 18/kg and the sale price on an average is Rs.50/- per kg. A net profit of Rs.180000 per hectare per year is obtained, The pond fish culture practice is being adopted by farmers in all the districts of the state. There are 18000 fish culture units having an area of more than 16921.69 hectares in the state. The ownership of these ponds vested with the panchayats. Panchayat leases out their ponds to the farmer's for fish farming. These village ponds are generally visited by cattle for drinking water. The cattle refuse dung and urine in the pond. The organic waste released by the cattle are recycled into manure and help in the production of plankton which is basic food for fish. Thus all the village fish culture ponds in Haryana are the good example of fish cum cattle farming. With the passage of time, the farmers have modified the technologies as per the need. Generally Rohu,catla, mrigal and common carp are used for culture. The stocking density is kept at 20000 fish seed per hectare. Farmers have adopted the technique of multiple harvesting. which give better returns. Govt. provides 20% subsidy to general category while 25% to scheduled caste fish farmers for excavation of new pond/ renovation of old pond and fisheries inputs.

Economics of Fish Farming

a)

Expenditure
Rs.
  Construction of Pond,Water Supply Channel, Installation of Tubewell/Renovation/Lease Amount 25000
  Electricity & Water charges 17500
  Cost of 250Kg Lime 1000
  20000 Fish Seeds 1500
  Organic Fertilizer 10000
  Inorganic Fertilizer 5000
  Supplimentry feed 30000
  Medicine, Fishing, Watch & Ward 10000
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
100000
     
b)
Income
  Sale of 6000 KG Fish @ 50 KG at pond site
300000
     
c)
Net Income (B-A)
200000
   
Note:- The Income may vary on the productivity and market price of a pond

 


Fish Seed Production

Quality fish seed is the pre-requisite for successful fish farming. Department is using the techniques of hypophysation for the production of fish seed of culturable varieties. The breeding season of common carp fish in Haryana is February-March every year where as the breeding season of other species is monsoon season. Brood stock of required fish are maintained and sex-wise segreggate is made two month before. The pairing is made and injected with calculated dose of pituitary gland or ovaprim, ovatide or ovpal is injected to male and female fish. Within the 6-8 hours of the injection eggs from female and sperm from male are released in the water. The fertilizer is external. Normally one kg fish releases about one lakh eggs. The hatchlings are known as spawn. The spawn is reared in the nursary pond. After 15 days, the spawn attains the size of 25 mm and ready for stocking in the pond. More than 50 lakh fry can be produced per hectare fish seed farm in both the seasons in a year. The income from sale of fish seed is Rs. 3.25 lakh approx. per year @ Rs. 6500 per lakh. Fisheries department provides technical and financial assistance for setting up of ecotype hatchery and fish seed rearing units.

Economics of Fish Seed Production
a)
Expenditure
Rs.
  Construction of Eco Hatchery, Ponds, Water Supply Channel, Installation of Tubewell ( Rs/- 8 Lakh for 10 Years)
80000
  Electricity & Water charges
50000
  Cost of 250 Kg Lime
750
  1500 Kg Brood Stock
60000
  100 Quntals Organic Fertilizer
5000
  250 KG Urea
1250
  500 KG Single Super Phosphate
1500
  Supplimentry feed
50000
  Injecting Material, Medicine, Fishing, Watch & Ward
25000
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
273500
     
b)
Income
  Sale of 500 Lac. Fish Spawn
200000
  Sale of 50 Lac. Fish Fry
325000
  Sale of Spent Brood Stock
20000
 
TOTAL
545000
     
c)
Net Income (B-A)
271500
   
Note:- The Income may vary on the productivity and market price of a pond